Transcutaneous Cervical Vagus Nerve Stimulation Ameliorates Acute Ischemic Injury in Rats




Curated By TMS Solutions on Sep 27, 2016 1:41:00 PM
Curated By TMS Solutions

Title:

Transcutaneous Cervical Vagus Nerve Stimulation Ameliorates Acute Ischemic Injury in Rats.

Authors:

Ay I; Nasser R; Simon B; Ay H.
Brain Stimulation. 9(2):166-73, 2016 Mar-Apr.
[Journal Article. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]

 

BACKGROUND: Direct stimulation of the vagus nerve in the neck via surgically implanted electrodes is protective in animal models of stroke. We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of a non-invasive cervical VNS (nVNS) method using surface electrodes applied to the skin overlying the vagus nerve in the neck in a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).

METHODS: nVNS was initiated variable times after MCAO in rats (n = 33). Control animals received sham stimulation (n = 33). Infarct volume and functional outcome were assessed on day 7. Brains were processed by immunohistochemistry for microglial activation and cytokine levels. The ability of nVNS to activate the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) was assessed using c-Fos immunohistochemistry.

RESULTS: Infarct volume was 43.15 +/- 3.36 percent of the contralateral hemisphere (PCH) in control and 28.75 +/- 4.22 PCH in nVNS- treated animals (p < 0.05). The effect of nVNS on infarct size was consistent when stimulation was initiated up to 4 hours after MCAO. There was no difference in heart rate and blood pressure between control and nVNS-treated animals. The number of c-Fos positive cells was 32.4 +/- 10.6 and 6.2 +/- 6.3 in the ipsilateral NTS (p < 0.05) and 30.4 +/- 11.2 and 5.8 +/- 4.3 in the contralateral NTS (p < 0.05) in nVNS-treated and control animals, respectively. nVNS reduced the number of Iba-1, CD68, and TNF-alpha positive cells and increased the number of HMGB1 positive cells.

CONCLUSIONS: nVNS inhibits ischemia-induced immune activation and reduces the extent of tissue injury and functional deficit in rats without causing cardiac or hemodynamic adverse effects when initiated up to 4 hours after MCAO.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Institution

Ay, Ilknur. MGH/MIT/HMS Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA. Electronic address: iay@mgh.harvard.edu. Nasser, Rena. MGH/MIT/HMS Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA.
Simon, Bruce. electroCore LLC, Basking Ridge, NJ, USA.

Ay, Hakan. MGH/MIT/HMS Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA; Stroke Service, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Topic of this Article:

Topics: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation


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