Di Virgilio TG; Hunter A; Wilson L; Stewart W; Goodall S; Howatson G; Donaldson DI; Ietswaart M. Institution Di Virgilio, Thomas G. Physiology, Exercise and Nutrition Research Group, University of Stirling, Scotland, UK. Hunter, Angus. Physiology, Exercise and Nutrition Research G roup, University of Stirling, Scotland, UK. Wilson, Lindsay. Psychology, University of Stirling, Scotl and, UK. Stewart, William. Department of Neuropathology, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow and Institute of Neuroscience a nd Psychology, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK. Goodall, Stuart. Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbr ia University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Howatson, Glyn. Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbr ia University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Water Research Group, Unit f or Environmental Sciences and Management, North West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa. Donaldson, David I. Psychology, University of Stirling, Scotland, UK. Ietswaart, Magdalena. Psychology, University of Stirling, Scotl and, UK. Electronic address: email@example.com .
Evidence for Acute Electrophysiological and Cognitive Changes Following Routine Soccer Heading. Source EBioMedicine. 13:66-71, 2016 Nov.
INTRODUCTION: There is growing concern around the effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport. Routine game-play in so ccer involves intentional and repeated head impacts through ball heading. Al though heading is frequently cited as a risk to brain health, litt le data exist regarding the consequences of this activity. This study aims to assess the immediate outcomes of routine football heading using direct an d sensitive measures of brain function.
METHODS: Nineteen amateur football players (5 females; age 22+/-3y ) headed machine-projected soccer balls at standardized speeds, mo delling routine soccer practice. The primary outcome measure of cortico motor inhibition measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation, was assessed prior to heading and repeated immediately, 24h, 48h and 2week s post-heading. Secondary outcome measures were cortical exci tability, postural control, and cognitive function.
RESULTS: Immediately following heading an increase in corticomo tor inhibition was detected; further to these electrophysiological alterations, measurable reduction memory function were also fo und. These acute changes appear transient, with values normalizing 24h post -heading.
DISCUSSION: Sub-concussive head impacts routine in soccer heading are associated with immediate, measurable electrophysiological and co gnitive impairments. Although these changes in brain function were transi ent, these effects may signal direct consequences of routine soccer head ing on (long-term) brain health which requires further study.
Copyright A© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved. Publication Type: Journal Article.